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Table 1 Causes of otitis externa

From: Surgical management of 43 cases of chronic otitis externa in the dog

Primary factors Predisposing factors Perpetuating factors
Hypersensitivity diseases Ear canal conformation Bacteria
External parasites Temperature and humidity Yeasts
Foreign bodies Obstructive ear disease Contact allergy and irritants
Disorders of keratinisation Ear canal maceration Proliferative changes
Autoimmune disease Systemic disease Otitis media
Juvenile cellulitis   Inappropriate treatment