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Table 2 Fertility traits in the Teagasc Farm Fertility Study (Source: [5])

From: Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

Fertility trait Herd mean Herd range
Pre-breedinga   
Anovulation (%) 10 0 - 21
Cystic ovaries (%) 3 0 - 10
Subclinical endometritis (%) 24 8 - 38
Pyometra (%) 2 0 - 8
Breeding season   
Calving-to-first service (days) 71 59 - 92
Calving-to-conception (days) 88 73 - 103
Submission rate (21-days) (%) b 70 25 - 96
Conception rate to first service (%) 48 29 - 71
Infertile rate (%) 14 2 - 40
Breeding season (weeks) 15 9 - 25
  1. a Determined by ultrasonography approximately one week before the date set for the start of mating.
  2. b Percentage of calved cows submitted for service in the first 21 days of the breeding season.