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Table 1 Effect of plant vacuum levels (40, 44 and 50 kPa) on mean teat tissue changes (mm)*, and mean milk yield (kg) with WB and NB clusters - Experiment 1

From: Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography

Vacuum level - kPa 40 low-level 44 low-level 50 mid-level  
Cluster Type NB WB NB WB NB WB s.e.d
Canal length 3.18 3.45 3.46 3.33 3.51 3.73 0.41
Canal length (15 min) 2.73 3.42 3.10 4.05 3.03 3.37 0.45
Teat diameter 0.21b 1.26a 0.67ab 1.55a 0.52b 0.19b 0.47
Teat diameter (15 min) -0.03d 1.22a 0.70ad 1.50a 0.68d 0.06d 0.32
Cistern diameter -7.33 -8.01 -7.03 -8.85 -7.73 -7.75 0.52
Cistern diameter (15 min) -6.67b -7.82a -6.42b -8.40a -7.10b -7.62ab 0.40
Wall thickness 2.63 3.65 2.86 4.38 2.94 3.43 0.34
Wall thickness (15 min) 2.30b 3.43a 2.78b 3.90a 2.95b 3.20b 0.24
Teat length 11.62 8.75 11.17 5.17 10.42 9.12 1.83
Teat length (15 min) 4.50 2.92 4.67 0.67 4.42 2.50 1.43
Mean milk yield (kg) 18.05 17.27 17.05 18.15 18.38 17.58 0.63
  1. s.e.d.: standard error difference
  2. * Tissue changes were recorded directly after milking and 15 minutes later.
  3. Values with different superscripts, within rows, differ significantly, ab P < 0.05, ac P < 0.01, ad P < 0.001.