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Table 2a Interaction of cluster type, pulsator ratio, pulsation pattern on teat tissue changes (mm), mean milk yield (kg) and mean milking time (seconds) with mid-level milking - Experiment 2

From: Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography

  Cluster type Pulsator ratio Pulsation pattern Cluster × ratio Cluster × pattern Ratio × pattern
  WB NB s.e.d 60:40 67:33 s.e.d 2 × 2 4 × 1 s.e.d P-value P-value P-value
Canal length 2.81 2.78 0.20 2.83 2.76 0.20 2.72 2.87 0.48 0.03 0.65 0.38
Teat diameter 1.34a -0.00d 0.19 0.70 0.65 0.19 0.65 0.69 0.19 0.01 0.67 0.20
Cistern diameter -8.12a -7.64d 0.34 -7.70 -8.06 0.34 7.73 8.03 0.34 0.13 0.97 0.01
Wall thickness 3.65a 2.70d 0.13 3.03a 3.32b 0.04 3.09 3.27 0.13 0.16 0.14 0.00
Teat length 10.34 9.46 0.78 10.14 9.66 0.78 10.02 9.79 0.78 0.66 0.22 0.61
Mean milk yield 17.21a 16.14d 0.21 16.44a 16.91b 0.21 16.84 16.51 0.21 1.00 0.36 0.42
Mean milking time 484a 608d 12.94 565.5a 526.6c 12.94 552.8 539.3 12.94 0.07 0.87 0.95
  1. s.e.d: standard error difference
  2. Values with different superscripts, within rows, for cluster type, pulsator ratio and pulsation pattern differ significantly, ab P < 0.05, ac P < 0.01, ad P < 0.001.