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Table 2 Flyway origins of species occurring in Ireland outside the breeding season

From: A review of Ireland's waterbirds, with emphasis on wintering migrants and reference to H5N1 avian influenza

Species Breeding1 Wintering1 Flyway estimate2 All-Ireland estimate3
Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata Arctic/boreal W Eurasia, Greenland Europe, Greenland 300,000 1,025+
Black-throated Diver Gavia arctica N Europe and W Siberia NW Europe, Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas 375,000 <1,000
Great Northern Diver Gavia immer N America, Greenland, Iceland NW Europe 5,000 <1,000
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Europe, NW Africa Europe, NW Africa 340,000 2,345+
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus NW Europe NW Europe 475,000 5,385+
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo NW Europe NW Europe 120,000 13,710+
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea W Europe, NW Africa W Europe, NW Africa 274,500 2,960+
Little Egret Egretta garzetta Ireland, UK, Continent, N Africa Ireland, UK, Continent, N Africa 134,000 <1,000
Mute Swan Cygnus olor Irelanda Irelanda 11,440a 11,440
Bewick's Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii Arctic N Russia NW Europe 29,000 380
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Iceland Ireland, UK, Iceland 20,900 12,730
Greenland White- fronted Goose Anser albifrons flavirostris W Greenland Scotland, Ireland 33,000 11,340
Greylag Goose Anser anser Iceland UK, Ireland 89,100 5,030b
Canada Goose Branta canadensis Ireland Ireland 1,050 1,050
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis Greenland Scotland, Ireland 54,100 9,035
Light-bellied Brent Goose Branta bernicla hrota Canada, Greenland Ireland 21,750 30,000
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna NW Europe NW Europe 300,000 14,610
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope W Siberia, NW and NE Europe NW Europe 1,500,000 82,370+
Gadwall Anas strepera NW Europe W Europe 60,000 630
Eurasian Teal Anas crecca N and NW Europe NW Europe 400,000 45,010+
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos N Europe NW Europe 4,500,000 38,250+
Northern Pintail Anas acuta N Europe, W Siberia NW Europe 60,000 1,235
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata N, NW, Central Europe NW, Central Europe 40,000 2,545
Common Pochard Aythya ferina Russia, NE and NW Europe NE and NW Europe 350,000 37,780
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula N and NW Europe NW Europe 1,200,000 36,610
Greater Scaup Aythya marila W Siberia, N Europe W Europe 310,000 4,430
Common Eider Somateria mollissima see c below see c below 1,548,000c 2,890
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis Iceland and Greenland N Atlantic 125,000 <1,000
Common Scoter Melanitta nigra N and NW Europe, W Siberia Baltic, E Atlantic 1,600,000 23,190
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula N, NW and Central Europe NW and Central Europe 400,000 9,665
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator NW and Central Europe, Iceland, E Greenland NW and Central Europe, Iceland 170,000 3,390
Water Rail Rallus aquaticus Iceland Faeroes, Scotland, Ireland Unknown Unknown
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus Europe and N Africa Europe and N Africa 3,550,000 Unknown
Common Coot Fulica atra E, N, W Europe NW Europe 1,750,000 33,160
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus N, C, W Europe Europe, NW Africa 1,020,000 67,620
Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula Iceland, N and NW Europe W Europe, N Africa, Mediterranean 73,000 14,580
European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria Iceland, the Faeroes, Greenland Ireland, W Britain, Continent, NW Africa 930,000 166,700+
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola Arctic Russia, NE Canada Wadden Sea, Ireland, UK, S and W Africa 247,000 6,315
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus Europe Europe, N Africa 6,750,000 207,700+
Red Knot Calidris canutus Canada, Greenland W Europe 450,000 18,970
Sanderling Calidris alba NE Canada, Greenland, Svalbard E Atlantic, W and S Africa 123,000 6,680
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima E Atlantic E Atlantic 75,000 3,330
Dunlin Calidris alpina N Scandinavia, Russia, NW Siberia W Europe, Mediterranean, N Africa 1,330,000 88,480
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus N Russia, S Sweden, N Poland, N Belarus, Baltic W and S Europe, N and W Africa >1,000,000 Unknown
Snipe Gallinago gallinago N Europe S and W Europe, W Africa >2,500,000 Unknown
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola Europe W and S Europe, N Africa 17,500,000 Unknown
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa Iceland, the Faeroes Britain, Ireland, Continent, N Africa 47,000 13,880
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica N Europe, N Russia W Europe, NW Africa 120,000 16,280
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Iceland, the Faeroes, Scotland W Africa 675,000 Unknown
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata W, N and Central Europe W Europe, Mediterranean, NW Africa 850,000 54,650+
Common Redshank Tringa totanus see d below see d below 400,000d 31,090
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia Scotland, Scandinavia W and SW Europe, NW, W and S Africa 420,000 1,265
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres NE Canada, Greenland W Europe, NW Africa 150,000 11,810
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus Black Sea, C, S, W Europe Black Sea, Mediterranean, NW Europe, NW Africa 660,000 <200
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus Greenland, N and W Europe S and W Europe 4,250,000 Unknown
Common Gull Larus canus Iceland, Ireland, Britain Europe, N Africa 1,725,000 Unknown
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, UK, Belgium, France W Europe, W France 550,000 Unknown
Herring Gull Larus argentatus Iceland, Ireland, Britain, NW France, Germany NW Europe 590,000 Unknown
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus NW France, Britain, Ireland, Iceland, N Europe E Atlantic S to Iberia 440,000 Unknown
  1. 1From Wernham et al. (2002), also EURING's Migration Mapping Tool
  2. 2From Wetlands International [21].
  3. 3Crowe et al. [3].
  4. a The Irish Mute Swan population has been elevated to biogeographic population [21], and the threshold is thus the same as that for all-Ireland.
  5. bAdditional birds from feral population - c. 2,000 individuals.
  6. cThe relevant population on which to base the 1% threshold for Common Eider has been taken as the NW European total which comprises the four populations in this region (Britain/Ireland 73,000, Baltic/Wadden Sea 850,000-1,200,000, Norway/NW Russia 300,000-550,000 and White Sea 20,000-30,000).
  7. dThe relevant populations for Common Redshank include two populations, robusta (breed in Iceland and the Faeroes, winter Britain, Ireland, NW France) and brittanica (breed in Britain and Ireland, winter Britain, Ireland, NW France).