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Table 2 Definitions of foot lesions as recorded during foot trimming of 144 dairy cows

From: Foot lesions in lame cows on 10 dairy farms in Ireland

Digital dermatitis Proliferative inflammation of the dorsal or plantar – palmar skin. Commonly found adjacent to the heels or less commonly in the proximal part of the interdigital space
Interdigital necrobacillosis Acute necrotising inflammation of the interdigital skin and underlying tissues, with swelling above the coronary band and in the interdigital space
Interdigital dermatitis Inflammation of the interdigital skin without extension to deeper tissues
Heel horn erosions Pits and pockmarks, with parallel horizontal grooves on the bulb of the heel. Sometimes the horn is separated forming flaps
Sole haemorrhage Haemorrhagic discoloration covering ≥ 50 % of the sole or a smaller area with deep intense colour
Sole ulcer Circumscribed loss of the sole horn exposing the corium of the solar surface, located in the region of the sole-bulb junction, usually nearer the axial margin with or without additional affection of deeper structures of the claw
White line disease Separation of the abaxial sole from the wall; disrupted continuity of white line with the presence of necrosis, organic material or an abscess
Double sole Under run of the sole horn, two soles separated by a space
Toe ulcer Focal area of necrosis or an abscess located at the tip of the claw, undermining the sole horn. Severe cases can be associated with distal phalangeal osteitis
Axial wall fissure Deep fissure on the axial surface of the claw, parallel to the dorsal wall
Vertical wall fissure Vertical fissure of the wall horn, usually located on the dorsal or dorso-lateral aspect of the claw
Horizontal wall fissure Fissure of the wall horn, parallel to the coronary band
Long toe Length of the dorsal aspect of the claw ≥ 8 cm and angle of the dorsal wall of the claw < 50°
Interdigital hyperplasia Fibrous proliferation of the interdigital skin causing a mass that protrudes between the claws; which could be inflamed or not
  1. Adapted from Greenough [13] and Tadich et al. [14]