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Table 1 The results of immunohistochemical examination in studied dogs

From: The immunohistochemical evaluation of selected markers in the left atrium of dogs with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy and myxomatous mitral valve disease – a preliminary study

Examined feature DCM MMVD control p-value
DES intensity; median (range) 1 (1–2)1 2 (1–3) 2 (2–3)1 1 0.006
DES %; average ± SD 85.8 ± 10.9 84.8 ± 9.3 82.2 ± 8.6  
DES Remmele; median (range) 4 (3–8)1, 2 6 (4–9) 1 7 (6–10)2 1 0.03
2 0.001
DES desmosomes; median (range) 0 (0–3)1 2 (0–3) 2 (1–3)1 1 0.02
VIM intensity; median (range) 3 (2–3) 3 (2–3) 2 (2–3)  
VIM %; average ± SD 15.3 ± 6.31,2 10.99 ± 5.71 10.5 ± 1.972 1 0.03
20.02
VIM Remmele; median (range) 4 (2–6) 3 (2–6) 4 (3–5)  
PER intensity; median (range) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–1)  
PER %; average ± SD 27.96 ± 27.61 46.4 ± 28.5 67.76 ± 9.71 1 0.03
PER Remmele; median (range) 2 (0–3) 3 (1–4) 3 (3–3)  
CAS intensity; median (range) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2)  
CAS %; average ± SD 46.9 ± 25.11,2 73.6 ± 24.91 84.6 ± 8.92 1 0.01
2 0.01
CAS Remmele; median (range) 3 (1–4)1,2 4 (1–7)1 4 (3–9)2 1 0.01
2 0.01
  1. DES desmin, VIM vimentin, PER periostin, CAS caspase, SD standard deviation, DCM dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, MMVD dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease; superscripts (1,2) indicate values showing significant statistical difference.
  2. All the cell markers were evaluated for: the intensity of expression (scored from 0: no expression to 3: strong expression), the percentage of cells showing positive expression, as well as the Remmele score (scored from 0 to 12, taking into account both the intensity of expression and percentage of positive cells). Additionally the cardiomyocyte desmosomes were evaluated for desmin expression from 0 (no visible desmosomes) to 3 (well visible desmosomes)