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Table 2 Type of the expression of cell markers in examined specimens in each group

From: The immunohistochemical evaluation of selected markers in the left atrium of dogs with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy and myxomatous mitral valve disease – a preliminary study

Antibody Pattern of expression DCM (n; %) MMVD (n; %) Control (n; %)
DES Regular, well-preserved striation 3 (20%) 19 (55.9%) 7 (100%)
Irregular striation 9 (60%) 8 (23.5%) 0
No expression 3 (20%) 7 (20.6%) 0
DES (desm) Well-visible 3 (20%) 12 (35.3%) 7 (100%)
Faint 9 (60%) 14 (41.2%) 0
No expression 3 (20%) 8 (23.5%) 0
VIM Abundant between cardiomyocytes 5 (33.3%) 2 (5.9%) 1 (14.3%)
Sparse between cardiomyocytes 4 (26.7%) 26 (76.5%) 6 (85.7%)
No expression 6 (40%) 6 (17.6%) 0
PER Diffused cytoplasmic expression in cardiomyocytes with mild expression in interstitial tissue 5 (33.3%) 15 (44.1%) 5 (71.4%)
Strong expression in interstitial tissue with mild cytoplasmic expression in cardiomyocytes 5 (33.3%) 10 (29.4%) 0
No expression 5 (33.3%) 9 (26.5%) 2 (28.6%)
CAS Diffuse strong cytoplasmic expression 4 (26.7%) 25 (73.5%) 7 (100%)
Diffuse mild cytoplasmic expression 10 (66.7%) 6 (17.6%) 0
No expression 1 (6.7%) 3 (8.8%) 0
  1. DES desmin, desm desmosomes, VIM vimentin, PER periostin, CAS caspase, DCM dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, MMVD dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease
  2. Desmin showed positive expression within the cardiomyocyte and was evaluated for the regularity and visibility of the cardiomyocyte cross-striation and for the visibility of desmosomes within the cardiomyocyte; vimentin showed positive expression within the interstitial tissue and no expression within the cardiomyocyte; periostin showed positive expression in both cardiomyocyte and interstitial tissue with variable intensity; caspase-3 showed positive expression only within the cardiomyocyte. All the cell markers showed cytoplasmic expression