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Table 4 Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and end-tidal isoflurane concentration

From: Effects of midazolam on cardiovascular responses and isoflurane requirement during elective ovariohysterectomy in dogs

Para-meter Group Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5
HR M 97.0 ± 12.3 104 ± 15.2 106 ± 11.9 105 ± 11.4 114 ± 15.9
P 101 ± 18.9 99 ± 14.2 105 ± 12.1 106 ± 14.5 119 ± 15.8
% change in HR from baseline (%) M N/A 9.3 ± 17.3 11.2 ± 17.8 9.9 ± 20.9 18.1 ± 23.4
P N/A −1.5 ± 12.6 4.7 ± 20.5 5.1 ± 27.0 19.6 ± 31.1
MAP (mmHg) M 63.0 ± 6.7 72.0 ± 11.0 89.3 ± 9.5 86.6 ± 10.6 82.1 ± 13.2
P 72.0 ± 10.1 81.1 ± 10.6 97.5 ± 12.5 90.8 ± 14.2 89.9 ± 10.7
% change in MAP from baseline (%) M N/A 11.0 ± 20.4 40.8 ± 18.4 39.0 ± 23.1 30.8 ± 23.9
P N/A 16.6 ± 17.2 38.2 ± 20.3 26.8 ± 19.8 27.9 ± 21.4
f R M 16.0 ± 6.5 17.1 ± 7.8 13.1 ± 5.3 13.1 ± 5.1 14.7 ± 5.8
P 19.0 ± 9.9 17.8 ± 10.8 17.5 ± 5.8 14.7 ± 6.0 15.3 ± 6.7
PE’CO2 (kPa) M 5.11 ± 0.41 5.42 ± 0.46 6.19 ± 0.56 5.88 ± 0.36 5.66 ± 0.51
P 5.35 ± 0.45 5.57 ± 0.56 5.91 ± 0.72 5.86 ± 0.7 5.76 ± 0.62
FE’Iso (%) M 1.03 ± 0.14 1.15 ± 0.11 1.2 ± 0.17* 1.22 ± 0.2* 1.23 ± 0.1*
P 1.05 ± 0.11 1.16 ± 0.11 1.35 ± 0.15 1.43 ± 0.16 1.42 ± 0.19
Difference FE’Iso (%) M/P 9.1 8.3 14.3 14.3 14.3
  1. Mean values for heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE’Iso); respiratory rate (fR); and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PE’CO2), and difference between groups in FE’Iso expressed in percent (% difference FE’Iso) for group P and group M for each time period (1–5). M/P, Midazolam/Placebo; %, percentage; Group M: midazolam (0.25 mg kg− 1), group P: Hartmann’s solution (0.125 ml kg− 1). Period 1 (baseline): time in operating room until start of surgery; Period 2: start of surgery to start of ovarian manipulation; Period 3: manipulation of the ovaries; Period 4: manipulation of the uterus; and Period 5: abdominal closure. N/A, not applicable. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation. *Statistical significance (p < 0.05)