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Table 1 Signalment, radiological findings, treatment options, follow-ups and clinical outcome in 9 dogs with CVM

From: Cervical vertebral malformations in 9 dogs: radiological findings, treatment options and outcomes

Case Age at time of presentation (days) Gender Breed Weight (kg) Clinical signs Level of malformation Treatment modality Surgical approach Medium term follow-up (<  180 days post-operatively) Long-term follow-up (181 or more days post-operatively) Time of follow-up (days) Clinical outcome
1 1451 Female entire Miniature Schnauzer 8.2 Cervical hyperesthesia C1-C2 Surgical Ventral stabilisation Resolution of clinical signs 7 days post-operatively Resolution of the clinical signs 3190 Ambulatory, normal posture, gait and absent hyperesthesia
2 587 Male neutered Border Collie 28 Tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits and cervical hyperesthesia C1-C2 Surgical Dorsal decompression and ventral stabilisation (two stage surgery) Normal posture and gait with occasional cervical pain. Unremarkable follow-up CT scan. Telephonic follow-up. Reported episodes of cervical hyperesthesia every 8 weeks. Resolution of tetraparesis 1416 Ambulatory with normal posture and gait.
3 1748 Male neutered Cocker Spaniel 17.2 Tetraparesis, thoracic limb hypermetria and hyperreflexia C2 Surgical Ventral stabilisation and dorsal laminectomy of C1 Neurological examination and follow-up CT scan (pin migration that required surgical removal) CT myelogram confirmed recompression of the spinal cord at the level of C1 (left side) 484 Euthanasia 476 days after the surgery
4 144 Male entire Staffordshire Bull Terrier 13.3 Tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits in all four limbs and cervical hyperesthesia C1-C2, C3-C4 and sacrum Conservative N/A Moderate tetraparesis Ambulatory with mild tetraparesis. No evidence of hyperesthesia 888 Ambulatory with normal posture and gait.
5 381 Male entire German Shepherd Dog 34 Urinary incontinence C2-C5 andT3 Conservative N/A No evidence of urinary incontinence N/A 30 Improvement of urinary incontinence
6 1755 Female neutered Shih Tzu 7 Tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits and cervical hyperesthesia C2-C3 Surgical Ventral stabilisation Delayed proprioception on the right thoracic limb. Unremarkable follow-up CT scan. Telephonic follow-up. Reported resolution of tetraparesis, ataxia and cervical pain 854 Ambulatory with normal posture and gait.
7 2369 Male neutered Shih Tzu 9.75 Tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits C2-C3 Surgical Ventral stabilisation Relapse of tetraparesis and cervical hyperesthesia. Follow-up CT scan revealed loosening of the pins at the level of C3 and break on the of the PMMA bolus at the level of C2-C3. Review surgery with stabilisation of the C1-C4 vertebral bodies with Imexx pins and PMMA. Culture of the loose pins was negative. Six-month follow-up of the review surgery revealed improvement of the tetraparesis and absent cervical hyperesthesia. Relapse of cervical hyperesthesia 9-months after the review surgery (C6-C7 intervertebral disc protrusion) 549 Ambulatory with normal posture and gait.
8 2010 Male entire Siberian Husky 44.6 Non-ambulatory tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits on the thoracic limbs and cervical hyperesthesia C4-C5 Surgical Ventral decompression Lost to follow-up Lost to follow-up 11 Ambulatory with moderate tetraparesis
9 3782 Female neutered Chihuahua 2.5 Tetraparesis, proprioceptive deficits and cervical hyperesthesia C2-C3 Conservative (initially) then surgical Ventral decompression Normal posture, gait and absent cervical hyperesthesia Recurrence of the clinical signs (gliosis at the previous surgical site, adjacent segment disease) 660 Progressive tetraparesis