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Table 1 The univariable association between potential risk factors and BTV seropositivity among camels in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan using the chi-square test

From: Sero-epidemiological survey of bluetongue disease in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan

Factor Variable Animals tested Animals affected (%) p-value
Section West 98 67 (68.3%)  
South 55 49 (89.0%) 0.004*
North 45 37 (82.2%)  
North East 12 12 (100%)  
Locality Halfa 20 16 (80%)  
Western Kassala 78 51 (65.3%)  
Khashm Ghirba 9 7 (77.7%)  
Wad Al Helew 25 25 (100%) 0.003*
Aroma 12 12 (100%)  
Northern Delta 33 25 (75.7%)  
Telkuk 12 12 (100%)  
Rural Kassala 21 17 (80.9%)  
Sex Female 82 80 (97.5%) 0.000*
Male 128 85 (66.4%)  
Age (year) 1 23 17 (73.9%) 0.366
> 1 187 148 (79.1%)  
Breed Bushari 208 163 (78.3%) 0.617
Anafi 2 2 (100%)  
Season Rainy 109 77 (70.6%)  
Summer 38 37 (97.3%) 0.002*
Winter 63 51 (80.9%)  
Herd Size Small 45 40 (88.8%) 0.057
Medium 165 125 (75.7%)  
Ecology Rich Savana 133 100 (75.1%) 0.080
Savana 77 65 (84.4%)  
Water source Canal 20 16 (80%)  
Hafeer 78 51 (65.3%)  
Atbara river 35 33 (94.2%) 0.000*
Water station 6 2 (33.3%)  
Seasonal river 28 27 (96.4%)  
wells 43 36 (83.7%)  
  1. *Significantly different, with a p-value ≤0.05