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Table 1 Clinical findings, gross pathology and histopathological examination of studied dogs

From: Myocarditis in dogs: etiology, clinical and histopathological features (11 cases: 2007–2013)

Dog no. Breed age sex Clinical findings Reason of death Gross pathology Histopathology and IHC
1. Miniature Schnauzer 3 y M AF; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy; nephritis Euthanasia due to heart failure Generalized heart chamber dilation; ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, enlargement of liver and spleen Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (++ to +++); fibrosis (+ to ++); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
2. German Shepherd 8 y M AF; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy; recurrent lameness Euthanasia due to heart failure Generalized heart chamber dilation; thickening of pericardial sack; ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, enlargement of liver and spleen Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+ to ++); fibrosis (+ to ++); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
3. Siberian Husky 6 y F VPCs; mass of unknown aetiology in LV Sudden cardiac death embolic material in aorta and LV Granulocytic inflammation (+++); lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+++); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
4. Mongrel 5 y F no rhythm disturbances; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy Euthanasia due to heart failure Generalized heart chamber dilation; ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, enlargement of liver and spleen Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+ to ++); fibrosis (+); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
5. Mongrel 7 y M no rhythm disturbances; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy Euthanasia due to heart failure Generalized heart chamber dilation; ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, enlargement of liver and spleen Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+); fibrosis (+ to ++); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
6. Mongrel 3 y F no rhythm disturbances; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy Euthanasia due to heart failure Generalized heart chamber dilation; ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, enlargement of liver and spleen Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+); fibrosis (+); IHC: B. burgdorferi (+)
7. Mongrel 13 y M VT with idioventricular rhythm; LVW hypertrophy and MR; dyspnoea Euthanasia due to non-cardiac tumour Hypertrophy of LVW and MV degeneration Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+);
8. Cane Corso 3 y M AF with rapid ventricular response; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy Sudden cardiac death Generalized heart chamber dilation Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (++ to +++); fibrosis (+)
9. Great Dane 2.5 y M AF with rapid ventricular response; signs of dilated cardiomyopathy Sudden cardiac death Generalized heart chamber dilation Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to +++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+ to ++); fibrosis (+)
10. Mongrel 4 y F VT; LV dilatation; dyspnoea Sudden cardiac death Infarct of the LVW Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); granulocytic inflammation (+ to +++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (++ to +++)
11. Boxer 7 y M VT; no heart enlargement; neurological symptoms Euthanasia due to neurological symptoms No visible signs of heart failure Lympho-plasmocytic inflammation (+ to ++); cardiomyocyte degeneration (+); fibrosis (+); lymphocytic inflammation of brain (+++)
  1. AF atrial fibrillation, VPCs ventricular premature complexes, VT ventricular tachycardia, LV left ventricle, LVW left ventricular wall, MR mitral regurgitation, MV mitral valve, + − mild, ++ − moderate, +++ − severe, IHC immunohistochemistry.